British Fortifications Through the Reign of Richard III An Illustrated History

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This is the master timeline, sorted by period and by English and British monarch, which we will follow during this project. It is subject and highly likely to change.

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We are trying to create as definitive a list as possible before we begin, so that we may watch the films in uninterrupted order — but as we get closer to each period, the list becomes more refined. This list owes a debt to Great-Britain. Methods: We have tried to select films and television series that are representative of historical and political events in the development of England and Britain. Some films are added for historical context, or may occasionally be redundant but are left in because we love the director. Questions, comments, suggestions for films? Please let us know, and be sure to alert us if anything is out of order or misplaced.

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Click on the title of the film or program to read our post about it. For the intro to the Anglofilmia project, please click here. So, with determination, a good deal of luck and many prayers, the frightened villagers were in some cases capable of resisting a gang of bandits, a party of looters or a group of raiders. The term castle, coming from the latin castrum and its diminutive castellum designates a fortified building, a dwelling place for the local lord, a political and economic center which provided shelter to the population of the fief in case of danger.

Originating from the French regions between the Loire and Rhine rivers, the so-called motte-and-bailey castle was a transition between the post-Roman refuge and the medieval stone castle. The motte proper was a conical mound which might vary considerably in size between 6 and 15 m. The 9. The small fortified village of Hunneschans was situated near JJddel in the Netherlands.

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Probably built in the 7th century by the earl of Veluwe Diderik, the village was oval-shaped and leaned on a lake. It was fortified by a ditch, which could be filled with water from the lake, and an earth wall crowned by a stockade.

Hunneschans was in some ways similar to the Scandinavian and British ringforts. It was used as a refuge for the local peasantry until the 13th century. Finally the whole mound was revetted with a thick coat of clay to keep out water. With this technique the builders could create a dry place in a possible swampy area, or keep the castle out of reach of the river in low lands.

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Some of the material for the motte was derived from the ditch, but in some cases additional materials. Opposite: Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer. This fortified church, situated in the Camargue in southern France, was built and fortified against the Moors in It included a bell-tower arranged as a keep, thick walls with few openings, a high chapel and a wall-walk fitted with machicolation in the 14th century.

Castles and Fortified Cities of Medieval Europe were required to bring the mound up to any appreciable height. Often it rested on foundation pits to take heavy and strong timber posts. The top of the pitched or sloping roof was frequently designed as a small lookout post, a kind of watchtower allowing a wide view of the countryside around it. The entrance to the tower was above ground level and could be reached only by a removable timber bridge or a ladder.

Cathedral of Lisbon Portugal. The cathedral of Lisbon was built in the 12th century, probably by the Trench master masons Bernard and Robert, by order of king Afonso Henriques.

British Fortifications Through the Reign of Richard III

Like the cathedrals of Porto, Coimbra and Evora, it was also a fortress. View of a 10th century motte-and-bailey castle narrow bridge which could be easily destroyed by the castle inhabitants to prevent entry by the enemy. The upper part reflected the lord's authority; it was a nobleman's residence and a place of command.

The lower part was for the servants, whose task was to make their master's life as comfortable as early medieval life allowed.

The dimensions of the motte-and-bailey castle were generally calculated according to the range of a bow. Though baileys were often elliptical, they could also be square, rectangular or round.

The motte might be erected in the middle or on. Situated at the foot of the mound, the bailey a term coming from the French word bailie, also called basse-cour or bascourt, meaning low yard was an enclosed area usually in the form of a half-moon, D- or U-shaped. Typically a bailey was constructed with a few auxiliary buildings for example an oven, a well and cistern, storehouses, a granary, a bakery, stables and a few huts intended for servants and craftsmen baker, smith and so on. There was also a small yard where the warriors could train, a garden for herbs and vegetables, some fruit-trees, and a small meadow for a few horses, cows, sheep and pigs.

The bailey formed a kind of small village permitting the castle community to live and survive in quasi-autarky. The bailey was enclosed by a ditch, an earth wall and a stockade. Its entrance was defended by a small gatetower and a primitive drawbridge over the ditch. Norman motte-and-bailey cas-. It was, however, vulnerable to battering ram and fire. Its main. Various forms of Spanish merlons: 1 castle of Maqueda, 2 castle of Manzaneque, 3 castle Belmonte, 4 castle Guadamur. The earthworks have completely vanished, the excavations have been filled in, and timber works have left no trace on the surface.

Only those castles that were later rebuilt in stone have survived Gisors in France and Berkhamsted, Launceston and Restormel in Britain, for example. Ditches could be crossed. Fire was a hazard to the wooden motte-and-bailey castle tower, from internal domestic sources at all times, and 3Z.

Cross-section of a medieval wall showing the blind spot. Blind spots see page 49 or dead angles were areas around a fortress where the defenders could not see and their weapons could not reach their enemies. Architects, quarrymen, master-builders, masons, and stone-hewers were some of the increasingly available craftsmen whose.

The transition took place gradually, in a loose fashion. The choice between a timber castle and one of stone depended on the particular time and conditions, including natural elements. In mountainous rocky sites, it was difficult if. Langeais marks an important evolution in medieval fortification, being the oldest stone keep in France and a model for masonry great-towers of the early Romanesque period.

Built on a motte, it was a simple rectangular tower 7 m x 16 m in plan. The donjon, demolished in , probably had smallish, roughly hewn walls about. Stone keeps varied considerably in size from very large examples to very small ones. Only the richest and most powerful lords could afford such a luxury. Fulk had developed. Atienza Spain. The village of Atienza was situated about thirty kilometers northwest of Sigiienza in Castilla La Mancha. The castle was built by the Moors and reconquered by the king Alfonso VI in Today only the square donjon is preserved.

It was composed of a massive rectangular donjon 17 m wide, 24 m long and 35 m high; the walls, reinforced with buttresses, were 3. The donjon was enclosed with a wide bailey and a gatehouse built in the 13th century furnished with machicolation in the 15th century. The walls were reinforced by buttresses and the tower had wooden floors. Entrance was by means of a small projected tower placed some 3 m above ground level.

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  7. Over the long term, stone towers helped to create, reinforce and maintain a hierarchy within the nobility. Because of their wealth and its usual accompaniment. Heavy masonry fortification was a significant step in the evolution of the power that permitted kings and dukes to impose their will on their vassals.