Corrosion by Carbon and Nitrogen: Metal Dusting, Carburisation and Nitridation (EFC 41)

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This article discusses the corrosion resistance of materials used for the manufacture, handling, and storage of ammonia. These materials include aluminum alloys, iron and steel, stainless steels, nickel and its alloys, copper and its alloys, titanium and its alloys, zirconium and its alloys, niobium, tantalum, and nonmetallic materials.

Michael Davies, Cramer, Bernard S. Covino, Jr. More than books and data products on topics related to materials properties, performance, processing, and evaluation.

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Stephen D. Cramer ; Stephen D. This Site. Google Scholar. Bernard S. Marine corrosion failures tend to recur in cycles as one group of engineers ages and retires and a younger generation takes over.

Clearly, not all the experiences of senior engineers have been passed on. This has become more acute in the last ten years or so with early retirements and reduced manning, leaving even less time to educate new engineers. This book was envisioned and created as a way of encouraging engineers new to the marine environment, and those just wanting to update their knowledge, to take advantage of the many years of accumulated experience with corrosion of metals in marine environments in a quick and concise manner.

Steels, stainless steels, as well as alloys of copper, nickel, aluminium and titanium are covered within each section providing a wealth of information. Applications, commonly used alloy compositions, mechanical properties and the types of corrosion that the alloy groups are susceptible to are all described. It is intended that, armed with this knowledge, optimum service performance and corrosion resistance can be achieved from each alloy system.

Few marine systems or structures are made of one type of alloy and so the concluding section provides an explanation of galvanic corrosion in seawater and how each alloy group behaves when coupled to others. It also discusses common solutions to avoid galvanic corrosion. Celis and P. This first edition of Testing Tribocorrosion of Passivating Materials Supporting Research and Industrial Innovation: A Handbook treats in a clear, concise, and practical manner an important material degradation and protection matter.

It is designed as a handbook and provides a well structured approach of the basics needed to investigate the tribocorrosion behavior of passivating materials, and to conduct in a correct way a laboratory investigation on it.

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It provides answers on practical and theoretical approaches of tribocorrosion phenomena to engineers and medical persons involved with material assemblies subjected to aggressive environmental and mechanical conditions. For academic researchers it is a pertinent tool assisting them in how they can perform a tribocorrosion investigation and obtain results that are correctly interpreted and can be exchanged.

Different parts of the book are illustrated with practical examples. This handbook is truly an indispensable guide for every professional who comes into contact with the complex material degradation and protection processes that take place under combined corrosion and wear conditions. Fields of interest include: transportation aeronautics, maritime, rail, automotive , medical implants orthopaedics, dentistry , biochemistry, food production, energy production, and machining.

Main topics dealt with are tribocorrosion phenomena in medical and industrial sectors, depassivation and repassivation phenomena, impact on synergism in tribocorrosion, specific testing techniques, coupling tribology-to-corrosion, design of a testing protocol, and normalisation. Igual Munoz and S. All metals and alloys are subject to corrosion when in contact with body fluid due to the presence of chloride ions and oxygen.

Although the extent of corrosion is low because of the passive surface films usually present on surgical implants it has clinical consequences and there is a need for a better understanding of the process. The aim of this work, which is being conducted with the support of EFC Working Party 18 on Tribocorrosion, is to evaluate the reproducibility of the electrochemical test methods currently used to study the corrosion of biomaterials.


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Generally good qualitative agreement was obtained between the various participants. However, an important outcome of the study was that the present scientific understanding of CoCrMo corrosion is not sufficient to design electrochemical experiments for the reliable quantitative determination of corrosion rates in biological fluids. This important outcome highlights the need for improved electrochemical test methods, especially with regard to surface preparation, chemical and electrochemical pre-conditioning, solution aeration and data extraction.

The book will be of great interest to everyone involved in the determination of potentiodynamic polarisation curves and electrochemical impedance spectra. Espelid and D. Crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, particularly sea water, poses a serious threat to the integrity of stainless steels and has been responsible for many failures.

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The need for a reliable test method to measure the susceptibility of passive metals to crevice corrosion in sea water has been addressed recently in a major European Programme, CREVCORR. The first nine chapters of the book describe the development of the new crevice corrosion test method for plate and tubular materials and its application to a number of austenitic, ferritic and duplex stainless steels.

A key aim was to develop a crevice corrosion test procedure where the biological activity and oxidation capacity of natural and treated sea waters are simulated electrochemically. Another important aspect of the work was to formulate a new synthetic sea water capable of simulating the corrosiveness of natural and treated sea waters, including the effects of the bio-films that can form in natural waters. The final chapter presents the results of two large collaborative test programmes involving a total of 19 laboratories in eight countries worldwide.

These involved tests in natural and synthetic sea waters to evaluate the new crevice test and synthetic sea water. The book will be of value to scientists and engineers engaged in the selection of stainless steels for applications in sea water and other chlorinated natural environments. Kursten, D. Feron, and F. It is imperative for performance assessment to predict the lifetime of these containers.

In the lifetime prediction of metallic barriers for the disposal of high level nuclear waste HLW or of spent fuel, the presence of reduced sulphur species is an issue of growing importance, as the sulphur species are involved in localised corrosion phenomena. The proceedings are divided into five chapters: Chapter 1 provides a general overview of the disposal concepts of nuclear waste and the role of corrosion.

Chapter 2 explains the mechanism of sulphur-induced corrosion processes.


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This chapter also contains information from outside the nuclear disposal field in which sulphur is known to act as a detrimental factor e. Chapter 3 addresses the role of microbial processes in sulphur-assisted corrosion. Chapter 4 covers the modelling of sulphide-assisted corrosion. Chapter 5 is devoted to a panel discussion aiming to identify open issues in the investigation of sulphur-assisted corrosion phenomena and how to incorporate these in robust lifetime prediction of metallic barriers.

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Books by Grabke

All branches of industry have, for many decades, utilised organic coatings with active pigments. In most cases the pigments have included zinc dust, red lead oxide or chromates, the protective mechanisms of which are well understood. However, the use of lead and chromate-based coatings is no longer permitted, due mainly to their toxic and carcinogenic characteristics, respectively.

This has stimulated much interest in the development of new environmentally-friendly coatings with active pigments that convey "self-healing" characteristics. The use of advanced primers containing "smart" self-healing pigments with up to four cooperative effects aims to provide enhanced corrosion resistance for steel or aluminium structures. It includes sixteen contributions, some of which were selected from the proceedings of the workshop often in extended form together with a number of specially invited articles and reviews.

Recent initiatives and developments in high temperature technology aim at the exploitation of fuel end-processes at the edge of present materials capabilities, driving service temperatures higher and operating within ever more aggressive environmental conditions. The major driving force behind this trend is increased efficiencies and further growing efforts in environmental protection. The key to reliable operation of components for sufficiently long service periods to a large extent lies in the high temperature properties of the materials used, with high temperature corrosion resistance as the major life and performance-limiting factor.

As conventional alloy design invariably leads to a compromise between mechanical strength and corrosion resistance, industry has turned to coatings to provide improved materials performance. Consequently there is extensive worldwide activity to develop high performance protective coating systems, to prevent or minimise damage by corrosion, as well as by abrasion, wear and erosion at elevated temperature. Many of these systems which may consist of surface modified bulk materials or genuine coating systems and in some cases also of special alloy approaches are based on systematic development starting from present theoretical understanding, including laboratory data, and ending up in tailor-made solutions for industrial applications.

The present volume features the selected proceedings of an EFC Workshop held in Frankfurt on October to review the state-of-the-art in this field, addressing both theory and practice. The thirty-two contributions cover the following topics: aggressive combustion environments; steam environments; catalytic converters; gas turbines; oxidation and corrosion protection and gas turbines; thermal protection. Ritter and A.