Electronic Charges of Bonds in Organic Compounds

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This structure now would be called a resonance hybrid of all the resonance structures sometimes also referred to as canonical forms. An analogy can be used here. A foreigner comes to India and sees a rhino for the first timeā€¦then when he goes back to his country he tries to describe the animal he saw and he does it by saying the animal was a combination of a unicorn a fairy-tale horse with one horn above its nose and a dinosaur.

So we can see that these two animals carry distinctive features of the rhino, so the rhino can be considered to be a resonance hybrid of the two.

The most important thing here is that neither the unicorn nor the dinosaur exists in real life but the rhino does; resonance structures do not exist but are merely used to describe the actual molecule-the resonance hybrid which exists in nature. So the movement of electrons shown by the arrows to obtain those resonance structures are also superficial and only drawn for easier understanding. This is very similar to resonance, sometimes referred to a No-bond resonance or Baker-Nathan effect. In hyperconjugation single bonds are involved in the electron delocalization circuitry.

This effect is still not fully understood in detail but would serve the purpose of basic organic chemistry. The cation formed is called a carbocation as we will learn later.


This positive charge is stabilized by hyperconjugation as follows:. Notice that the sigma bond is involved in resonance and breaks in order to supply electrons for delocalization. These effects are very significant in organic chemistry and biology. Most books would deal with this effect in a very sketchy way, but it is important to understand the basis of this effect. This makes the molecule unstable.

It is the same things with molecules. So sheer bulk of the atoms or groups and their proximity can have serious implications. The usual physical clash between groups, almost always is accompanied by an electronic component as well. This is called stereoelectronic effect, which is not the same as the electronic effects discussed above and does not carry have an effect on some other part of the molecule like inductive and resonance effects.

Steric effect affects different properties of molecules, like acidity, basicity and general reactivity. A substitution reaction on a halide by a hydroxide does not work in this case because of steric hindrance. The second figure represents the same reaction, with spheres replacing the alkyl groups to show the spatial perspective.

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So sterics can help us rule out certain reaction mechanism and help us predict the reactivity of certain molecules in certain reactions. In contrast, atoms with the same electronegativity share electrons in covalent bonds, because neither atom preferentially attracts or repels the shared electrons. Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron s between atoms. It is a type of chemical bond that generates two oppositely charged ions. In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, whereas the nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion.

Ionic bonds require an electron donor, often a metal, and an electron acceptor, a nonmetal.

1.2 The Nature of Covalent and Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is observed because metals have few electrons in their outer-most orbitals. By losing those electrons, these metals can achieve noble gas configuration and satisfy the octet rule. Similarly, nonmetals that have close to 8 electrons in their valence shells tend to readily accept electrons to achieve noble gas configuration. In ionic bonding, more than 1 electron can be donated or received to satisfy the octet rule. The charges on the anion and cation correspond to the number of electrons donated or received.

In ionic bonds, the net charge of the compound must be zero. This sodium molecule donates the lone electron in its valence orbital in order to achieve octet configuration.

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This creates a positively charged cation due to the loss of electron. This chlorine atom receives one electron to achieve its octet configuration, which creates a negatively charged anion. The predicted overall energy of the ionic bonding process, which includes the ionization energy of the metal and electron affinity of the nonmetal, is usually positive, indicating that the reaction is endothermic and unfavorable. However, this reaction is highly favorable because of the electrostatic attraction between the particles.

At the ideal interatomic distance, attraction between these particles releases enough energy to facilitate the reaction. Most ionic compounds tend to dissociate in polar solvents because they are often polar. This phenomenon is due to the opposite charges on each ion. In this example, the sodium atom is donating its 1 valence electron to the chlorine atom.

4 Types of Chemical Bonds

This creates a sodium cation and a chlorine anion. Notice that the net charge of the resulting compound is 0. In this example, the magnesium atom is donating both of its valence electrons to chlorine atoms. The inadequacy of the simple Lewis structure view of molecules led to the development of the more generally applicable and accurate valence bond theory of Slater , Pauling , et al. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Formal charge - Wikipedia

Model for charges on atoms in molecules. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 11 March Organic chemistry. Clayden, Jonathan.

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