Flow Injection Analysis of Marine Samples

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Castro-Romero and N. Hester and R. Basu and T. Yaron, I. Dror and B. Payehghadr, S. Esmaeilpour, M. Rofouei, and L. Pehlivan and S. Vereda Alonso, J. Siles Cordero and A. Morales-Rubio, A. Salvador and M. Kartal, S? Tokalloglu , and B. Narin, A. Kars and M. Mahmoud, A. Fall - Water Column Samples.

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Incubation Experiments. Kinetics of Silicon uptake. Total silicic acid, gross silica production, and biomass-normalized measurements. MV Q Incubations. Q incubation data from MV NBP Incubation Nutrients. NBP incubation dissolved macronutrient concentrations.

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  • Instrument: Flow Injection Analyzer | BCO-DMO.
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NBP Station Nutrients. Dissolved macronutrient concentrations from NBP depth profiles. NBP Underway Nutrients. Underway dissolved macronutrient concentrations from NBP Concentration of major dissolved nutrients sampled from CTD hydrocasts.

13.4: Flow Injection Analysis

Dissolved nutrients from temp and iron experiments on Antarctic phyto and microzooplankton. Dissolved nutrient data from experiments on Antarctic phytoplankton and microzooplankton. Other Solutes. Other solutes from vertical profiles from multi- and gravity cores from two cruises.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flow analysis has been pointed out as a powerful tool for green analytical chemistry. The later can be illustrated by the eco-friendly determination of free glycerol in biodiesel based on water-cavitation sonoluminescence. All the process was carried out in a flow-batch chamber, which included a piezoelectric device and an optical fiber adapted to a lab-made luminometer. Relatively to solid-phase microextractions, the ability of flow analyzers for the highly reproductive handling of suspensions has been exploited in novel approaches involving movable sorbents, such as beads 69 and fluidized beds.

Instrument: Flow Injection Analyzer | BCO-DMO

Applications of solid-phase microextractions in flow systems encompass miniaturization, 71 , 72 bioanalysis, 72 and chemical speciation. On the other hand, monolithic columns and fused-core particles have been exploited for low-pressure chromatographic separations, especially in sequential injection systems named as sequential injection chromatography.

Novel strategies have been also proposed for liquid-liquid microextractions, including mechanization of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction 78 , 79 and cloud point extraction. On the other hand, exploitation of pulsed flows inherent to the multipumping approach was beneficial for reproductive dispersion of the extractor in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Non-chromatographic procedures have been developed for chemical speciation. In a recent application, in-line UV photooxidation under heterogeneous catalysis by TiO 2 , selective hydride generation, and arsine trapping into oxidized carbon nanotubes were exploited for arsenic speciation by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry GFAAS.

A detection limit as low as 0. An immunoprecipitation assay for diabetes diagnosis can exemplify a recent bioanalytical application of flow analysis. This illustrates the exploitation of a well-known process i. Another example involves an amperometric immunoassay for determination of residues of an organochloride pesticide 2,6-dichlorobenzamide carried out in a microfluidic device. In fact, hyphenation of flow analysis to separation techniques has resulted in a synergistic improvement of analytical performance and the number of applications has increasing recently.

A recent example of the former is exploitation of a multisyringe flow system for sample treatment before determination of the beta-blockers atenolol and propranolol in human plasma. A sampling rate of 7 h -1 was achieved by performing sample treatment and separation by gas chromatography simultaneously. In relation to high performance liquid chromatography, an illustrative example is the coupling of a 3D printed micro flow injection system for clean-up of saliva and urine samples and preconcentration of emerging pollutants triclosan and methy-, ethyl-, propyl-, phenyl-, and butylparaben before chromatographic separation.

Sample treatment demanded 20 min, but it was synchronized with the chromatographic separation aiming at better sample throughput. These few recent examples illustrate the diversity of applications successfully carried out by exploiting the peculiar characteristics of flow analysis.

A recent comprehensive review 52 discussed other relevant applications and presented a list of review articles focusing on different aspects and applications of flow analysis. Moreover, flow-based procedures have been widely used as analytical tools in several fields e. This clearly states flow analysis as a well-established analytical tool.

Because of the ability for effective management of samples and reagents under highly reproductive conditions, flow systems will probably remain as a unique tool to solve analytical problems. The impact of flow analysis on the way chemical analysis is currently performed is not arguable, mainly in relation to exploitation on non-quantitative processes and unusual chemical reactions.

These approaches are advantageous in relation to selectivity, precision, sample throughput, as well as minimization of reagent consumption and waste generation. On the other hand, numerical indicators have demonstrated the decrease of the number of published articles in recent years and one should not expect that this panorama will be significantly modified, unless other research groups start to act in the field. This can be achieved by carrying out researches at the interface, as has been demonstrated by bioanalytical applications and exploitation of flow systems for on-line sample pretreatment and analyte derivatization before chromatographic separation, mass spectrometric detection, or both.

An additional issue is if a large number of publications is really required. By considering the recent applications and trends, one may expect that the massive scientific production in flow analysis in the last three decades will be replaced by high quality innovative contributions, especially focusing on miniaturization, green analytical chemistry, microextractions, chemical speciation, bioanalysis, and sample preparation, or at the interfaces of these areas, as demonstrated in some examples previously discussed.

In the author personal view, innovative contributions will remain attracting the interest of editors and readers of the main journals in analytical chemistry and this is more important than a large number of publications. New paradigms will have to be broken for innovative contributions and further developments in flow analysis. This will require creativity, knowledge, and focus on unsolved analytical problems. In this sense, flow analysis should be considered as one of the useful available tools to perform analytical chemistry.

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Elias A. Zagatto and Wanessa M.

Mattos are thanked for critical comments. Acta , , Acta , , 9. Acta , 51 , Acta , 78 , Acta , , 1. Acta , , 3. Actuators, B. Acta , 79 , Acta , 87 , Acta , , 8. Methods , 5, Actuators, B , , Methods , 7, Methods , 10 ,